So now we are here.
After lots and lots of my daily posts I hope I have reached my goal which is helping you guys understand what China was like before European contact and what China was like after European contact. Through this journey that I had with you guys, really challenged my researching skills so that I can find the most accurate information, also, so that your not missing a thing. So now I end this blog with my last final post bye saying Good Bye!! and I hope you had as much fun as I did!!

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Chinese comparisons to other nations (Using a range of sources, compare Chinese society to other nations around 1900)

China was one of the many nations occurring in the 1900’s. Obviously. In 1900, China’s glory days were behind her. China was a nation in decline. In 1900, China was heavily controlled by foreign nations who tended to dominate the ports such as Shanghai. China was ruled by the Qing family, though the family is better known as the Manchu’s.

Before the Indian Independence Movement in the early 1900’s, India had been under the influence of a foreign ruler for its entire history. It was never in control of its own political destiny, nor was it ever considered a legitimate country. By the time the British took over the area, the citizens of India were beginning to grow restless with having no say in any political decisions. There was turmoil beneath the surface that the British were not really aware of, nor threatened by. This turmoil was evident in the minor rebellion of 1857, which was led by Indian soldiers.

Americans were optimistic in 1900. For most of them, life was better materially than it had ever been. This was a time of prosperity — a new materialism, available leisure time, and vacations for the emerging middle class appeared. America was now the world’s most affluent country. Access to electricity, automobiles, and indoor plumbing was not widespread, but most people felt that such conveniences were just a matter of time.

Above, I have compared 3 nations in the period around 1900s. All 3 of these nations were diverse in culture and viewpoints. America was the country most ahead in technology in this time period, followed by China, then India.


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Positive and Negatives (Discuss the positive and negative consequences of contact between China and European powers during this period)

There is a range of both positive and negative consequences of contact between contact between China and Europe. Some of the positive and negative effects include…
More trade routes were opened,
Banks were being built to help boost the economy,
Many uprisings were started in China,
New religions that were not traditional Chinese began and created drama.

Contact between China and Europe had a range of positive effects including that more trade routes were opened and China’s economy was being boosted. The Boxer Protocol helped in both of these as foreign powers used the Chinese money to build new railways and bridges, this helped to make trade in China easier to move through the provinces. Banks were also built with the Chinese money to help boost the economy. The foreigners were taking control and began to build a new, modernised economy in China.

Although there were positives of contact between China and Europeans, there were also negatives to it. Some negatives to contact between China and Europe include that it sparked many uprisings in China and that the Europeans were bringing new religions and traditions that created drama with the Chinese. New religions created drama’s with the Chinese as they were used to their traditional system and were not happy with the Europeans bringing new religions. Many uprisings were created in China over various reasons including government, religions and trade.

Unaffected Chinese societies (Identify features of Chinese society that were unaffected by contact with Europeans)

China was rapidly changing during the time, and there was definitely more things changing than there wasn’t changing, but there are things that were unaffected by contact with Europeans.

Although there was the introduction of a 13 man government cabinet after Empress Dowager Cixi died, nine of the officials were Manchus and eight were members of the Imperial family, this meant that not much was going to change.

One important part of China that was unaffected was that China did not have a positive attitude towards foreigners. Chinese believed that they were being influenced by Western countries and needed to put a stop to it.

One continuity in Chinese government for a while was not bringing the democratic form of government by Empress Dowager Cixi, this was originally a reform but was not implemented.

Empress Dowager Cixi


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How china was changed (Explain how China was changed by its contact with Europeans)

Straight after the Boxer Rebellion, foreign powers imposed a settlement on Chinese government called the Boxer Protocol. China had to pay 450 million taels (Chinese economy), on for every Chinese subject. This would be translated to about $6 billion AUD today.

Some of the money paid by the Chinese was redirected by foreign powers to be spent in China. The foreigners used the money to set up banks and build railways and bridges, in a form of compulsory modernisation. After the Boxer Rebellion, Empress Dowager Cixi realised that she had to modernise the government. She agreed to a wide range of reforms including the abolition of the government examination system and the introduction of a democratic form of government, but this was not implemented.

It is also suggested by historians that the Boxer uprising was the first sign of a modern Chinese nationalism, it was a growing awareness that China was a nation. This was quite different from the traditional belief that China was an empire made up of different lands and ethnic groups, with loyalty to an emperor or dynasty. Nationalists believed that Chinese people should have a say in running their country, they also believed it should be governed for the people’s benefit.


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The Boxer Rebellion (2. Assess the significance of a key event involving China and a European power, using sources to identify different perspectives of the event)

The Boxer Rebellion

The Boxer Rebellion was a highly brutal war that took place in China just after the Qing Dynasty between 1898 and 1900.  It was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness (Yihetuan), known in English as the “Boxers”, and was motivated by proto-nationalist sentiments and opposition to foreign imperialism and Christianity. The Great Powers intervened and defeated Chinese forces. It was not a rebellion against their Qing rulers. Instead, it was an uprising against European traders, merchants and Christian missionaries.

After three months, the rebellion was finally crushed by the military superiority of the foreign powers, with reinforcements sent from eight countries: Austria–Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Russia and the United States. Britain’s force included Sikh soldiers from India, and sailors and soldiers from New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia.

– The areas of northern China directly affected by the Boxer Rebellion.

boxer rebellion

– Japanese troops, part of the international force, with the bodies of executed Boxer prisoners.

boxer rebellion 1

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You can check out these images on my year 9 history text book


The Beginning of the Chinese and Europeans

Europeans had been trading with China since the early 1500’s, the early traders involved with China include the Portuguese and Dutch. The Portuguese were the first to reach China in 1514. By 1557, the Chinese government grants the Portuguese trading peninsula of Macao. The Portuguese established themselves as major actors in the carrying trade, or exchange of goods between Asian countries and became involved in trade with China and Japan.

China had fallen behind other nations by the beginning of the 19th century, so this meant that the population didn’t have enough money to find food to feed their families. The Qing Emperors continued to follow old age traditions, the Qing Emperors were reluctant to change because China regarded itself as the Zhong guo (which meant the Centre of the World) and they wanted to deal with foreigners within the age old tribute system. Under the system anyone who wanted to trade with China had to acknowledge the superiority of the Emperor. Foreign mission members were required to kowtow when meeting the Emperor, this was a ceremonial bow, involving kneeling three times, tapping the forehead on the ground nine times and lying flat on the floor.

the following information is from my year 9 history text book ,